The plantar fascia is a sturdy structure but the degree of stress that it takes makes it susceptible to injury. A force equal to almost three times body weight passes through the foot with each step. On running, this typically happens about 90 times a minute. Plantar fasciitis is thought to be a traction and overuse injury. Damage to the plantar fascia is usually in the form of micro-tears. It is a degenerative rather than an inflammatory process. Damage tends to occur near the heel, where stress on the fibres is greatest, and where the fascia is the thinnest. The fascia broadens as it extends toward the toes.
Plantar fasciitis is often associated with calcaneal spurs. These are depositions of calcium where the fascia suffers most damage. Spurs are most commonly on the medial side at the origin of the fascia from the calcaneum. Spurs are the result of the process of plantar fasciitis and not the cause of the pain. It can present bilaterally.
The most common cause of arch pain is plantar fasciitis. Plantar fasciitis is the name that describes inflammation of the fibrous band of tissue that connects the heel to the toes. Symptoms of plantar fasciitis include pain early in the morning and pain with long walks or prolonged standing. Arch pain early in the morning is due to the plantar fascia becoming contracted and tight as you sleep through the night. When awakening and walking in the morning, the fascia is still tight and prone to irritation when stretched. When walking or standing for long periods, the plantar fascia becomes inflamed and painful. Treatment of plantar fasciitis is best accomplished with some simple stretching exercises, anti-inflammatory medications, and inserts for your shoes.
Go to a podiatrist at the first sign of symptoms. Besides pain on the bottom of the foot, additional symptoms may include burning sensation in arch, difficulty standing on tiptoes, inflammation, more pain after sleeping or resting, redness, heat, localized pain in the ball of the foot, sharp or shooting pain in the toes, pain that increases when toes are flexed, tingling or numbness in the toes, aching, pain that increases when walking barefoot, pain that increases when walking on hard surfaces, pain the increases when standing (putting weight on your feet) or moving around and decreases when immobile, skin Lesions, it?s important to get a proper diagnosis and treatment plan. Let?s go over the possible causes of the pain.
In more difficult cases of plantar fasciitis you should see your foot health professional for a thorough examination. They will find out why your arch or heel pain occurred in the first place and devise a treatment plan to relieve your pain and prevent it from reoccurring. They will evaluate your feet, walking pattern (gait), shoes, activities, exercise methods, and other relevant information and then devise your treatment plan.
Non Surgical Treatment
You may have noticed that one common element in the conservative treatment of all types of flat feet is orthoses. Many companies now manufacture semi-custom orthotic devices that not only improve comfort, but also seek to control abnormal motion of the foot. These over-the-counter inserts, in the $25 to $50 range, are an economical treatment that may help a majority of people. Unfortunately, these semi-custom devices will not fit everyone perfectly, and those of us who differ too much from the average may respond better to custom orthotic devices. Custom inserts are prescribed by your foot and ankle specialist and are made individually from either a physical or computerized impression of your feet. The only drawback of custom orthoses is their cost, ranging anywhere from $300 to $500. Many physicians recommend trying over-the-counter inserts first (and even keep them in stock) as they may save their patients large sums of money.
The main goal of surgery is to reduce pain and improve function. It may also reduce other injuries such as repeated ankle sprains and broken bones. Surgery may be considered if there is no relief with physical therapy, changes in shoewear and/or changes in activity. Some patients will also have tendon problems, ankle weakness and foot fractures. These patients may require other procedures to address related problems. If you have medical problems that make surgery unsafe, any infections or blood vessel disease, cavus foot surgery may not be appropriate. The surgical procedures involved with the correction of the cavus foot are varied. Theses may include correction of the bony deformity, ankle looseness and the muscle imbalances that cause the deformity. The goal is to provide a foot that evenly distributes weight along both inside and outside edges. A variety of incisions may be needed to perform the procedures related to the correction of the cavus foot.
Warm up properly. This means not only stretching prior to a given athletic event, but a gradual rather than sudden increase in volume and intensity over the course of the training season. A frequent cause of plantar fasciitis is a sudden increase of activity without suitable preparation. Avoid activities that cause pain. Running on steep terrain, excessively hard or soft ground, etc can cause unnatural biomechanical strain to the foot, resulting in pain. This is generally a sign of stress leading to injury and should be curtailed or discontinued. Shoes, arch support. Athletic demands placed on the feet, particularly during running events, are extreme. Injury results when supportive structures in the foot have been taxed beyond their recovery capacity. Full support of the feet in well-fitting footwear reduces the likelihood of injury. Rest and rehabilitation. Probably the most important curative therapy for cases of plantar fasciitis is thorough rest. The injured athlete must be prepared to wait out the necessary healing phase, avoiding temptation to return prematurely to athletic activity.